Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Rape A More Heinous Crime Than Murder - 1062 Words

We live in a Society that teaches one to be careful, not to get raped instead of teaching NOT TO RAPE. Rape is the most humiliating thing that can be done, it s the most vulnerable that can be. It is a more heinous crime than murder. Each rape event is a different case and the motives behind it could be completely different, but in all cases the rape will happen to satisfy a certain psychological need. Nearly 1 in 5 or 22 million women and 1 in 71 or almost 1.6 million men have been raped during their lifetimes. About 80% of female victims experienced their first rape before the age of 25, almost half experienced their first rape before age 18, and about 35% of women who were raped as minors were also raped as adults. Around 28% of†¦show more content†¦Because of these beliefs some men start to want that kind of domination in order to feel manlier. Therefore some men rape women in order to assert their manhood especially if they have doubts about their own masculinity. Power rapists are less impulsive and rely on psychological manipulation more than physical violence to control and sexually assault their victims. â€Å"A power rapist is motivated by his need to control and dominate his victim, and inversely, to avoid being controlled by the victim, describes Dr. Lisak. (Causes, Statistics Sex Assault Types. 2015) About 44% of rapes fall under this category, luckily this is one of the least violent types of rape. Anger Retaliation Rapists are different because the Rapist wants to punish their victim. They express their hatred for their victim through physical violence and horrid language. For these rapists, sex is a weapon to humiliate and degrade the victim. This rapist considers rape the ultimate offense they can commit against the victim, their objective is to injure the victim and hospitalize them. About 67% of rape or sexual assault victims know the offender. Some Rapists will rape women in order to get revenge from a specific woman or even a women who resembles one who showed power over him, because men want to feel superior to women but some of them have low self confidence issues which forces them to believe that they are below women. In such a case a man

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Prevalence Of High Blood Pressure Essay - 1596 Words

Prevalence of high blood pressure has increased over time According to the data collected, diagnosed high blood pressure increased from 2010 to 2014. This rise in diagnosed hypertension can be attributed to varying combinations of genetic, environmental, and sociological factors (Blais, 2014). Specifically, dramatic increases in the prevalence of obesity and aging population demographics can account for a significant amount of reported high blood pressure. In Canada, severe obesity has increased 4-fold over the past 3 decades (Padwal, 2016). Particularly in industrialized populations, weight gain has been shown to yield several risk factors of hypertension, such as metabolic abnormalities and excess adipose tissue (Padwal, 2016). In addition to obesity, vascular stiffness is a primary physiological driver of hypertension in the elderly (Blais, 2014). Within the past five years, the aging population in Canada has steadily increased and is expected to grow exponentially within the next few decades (Padwal, 2016). Further potential triggers associated with the increase in hypertension include: chronic stress, sedentary behavior, elevated sodium intake, and alcohol consumption, among others (Blais, 2014). Trend towards seeking high blood pressure diagnosis The rise in high blood pressure diagnosis could also be attributed to a general growth of hypertension awareness in the Canadian population. Expansions in educational campaigns on both macro and community levels withinShow MoreRelatedPrevalence Of High Blood Pressure Essay1610 Words   |  7 Pagesfound for this indicator Prevalence of high blood pressure has increased over time According to the data collected, diagnosed high blood pressure increased from 2010 to 2014. This rise in diagnosed hypertension can be attributed to varying combinations of genetic, environmental, and sociological factors (Blais, 2014). Specifically, dramatic increases in the prevalence of obesity and aging population demographics can account for a significant amount of reported high blood pressure. In Canada, severe obesityRead More High Blood Pressure Essay1374 Words   |  6 PagesData from World health organization (2002), estimated that high blood pressure was the cause of death for more than 7 million individuals every year, affecting 972 million of world population which accounts for 26.4% in total, 26.6% of those are men and 26.1% are women. In addition 333 million of those in developed countries and 639 million in developing countries and responsible for 11% of all diseases burden in industrial countries, it also estimated to be the case of death for more than 20% inRead MoreHypertension : Risk Factor For Cardiovascular Disease1560 Words   |  7 PagesDr. Zuzana Bic I. Public Health Problem Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, has become a major risk factor for several types of heart disease across the globe. In the United States alone, nearly 70 million adults have been diagnosed with this condition [1]. Hypertension is a condition in which arterial walls experience extreme force from blood flowing through; long-term force against artery walls will lead to more serious health problems such as strokeRead MoreRisk Factors For Developing Cardiovascular Disease896 Words   |  4 PagesIn today’s world, it seems there are a plethora of ailments. Diseases such as obesity, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose levels are a real concern for individuals. According to Prasanna Kumar (2011), the previously listed ailments are a cluster of individual illnesses that make up Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Therefore, MetS is not accepted as a disease, rather a syndrome with numerous risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabet es. Lawrence LawrenceRead MoreRisk Factors For Developing Cardiovascular Disease895 Words   |  4 PagesIn today’s world, there is a plethora of ailments. Diseases such as obesity, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose levels are a real concern for individuals. According to Prasanna Kumar (2011), the previously listed ailments are a cluster of individual illnesses that make up Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Therefore, MetS is not accepted as a disease, rather a syndrome with numerous risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes. Lawrence Lawrence (2013) stateRead MoreHealth Literacy Interventions And Its Impact On Diabetic Patient Health1454 Words   |  6 PagesLiterature Review Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem in the US. High diabetic prevalence rates and negative health outcomes were linked with lack of health literacy among the population. Health literacy is necessary to create awareness and improve self management skills among the patients. This will help prevent diabetes and delay the complications associated with it through educated care choices and self management ability. This research focuses on health literacy interventionsRead MoreSchema of The Process of Studies1133 Words   |  4 Pagesabout prevalence and knowledge of physicians were clear as following: Hypertension prevalence increased ever more with age, with the exception of the oldest age group (≠¥75 years). In the youngest age group, hypertension was present in 7.8% of the population. The prevalence rate was 59.4% in the 65-74 age group[1]. The weighted national prevalence estimates suggest that 26.3% of all Egyptian adults 25 years of age and older were hypertensive [1]. Just (53.2%) had achieved controlled blood pressureRead MoreThe Causes Of Non-Communicable Diseases ( NCD )1117 Words   |  5 Pagescompared to high-income countries. With about three quarters of the global burden NCD deaths occur in LMICs (WHO, 2017). Cancers, cardiovascular diseases (such as stroke and heart attacks), diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases (like asthma and chronic obstructive disease) are the main and most common types of NCDs affecting the global population (WHO, 2017). Hypertension is one type of NCD that also contributes to the burden of other NCDs like heart disease and stroke. Also called high or raisedRead MoreNational Health And Nutrition Examination Survey940 Words   |  4 Pagescardiovascular disease. Different surveillance methods are used to obtain reporting information regarding CVD. This information is beneficial to physicians, health care providers, and people in the community. It provides data that can be used to establish prevalence in different categories. It provides evidence and allows for issues to be prioritized. This is extremely important because different nations, states, counties, and cities are able to factors pertinent to their areas. The United States uses the NationalRead MoreCardiovascular Disease ( Cvd ), High Blood Pressure, Congestive Heart Failure1662 Words   |  7 PagesThis literature review will cover 20 different articles and journals pertaining to cardiovascular disease (CVD), high blood pressure, congestiv e heart failure, hypertension and other coronary heart disease among the Muslim community. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the decreasing of blood flow due to condensing and toughening of the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscles. A recent study found that every 33 seconds, there are death from CVD in the United States (ARA, 2004). The main problems

Physics in Everyday Life Essay Example For Students

Physics in Everyday Life Essay Following of our actions in our daily life are parts of physics study. 1) When we walk or run, our motion is part of laws of mechanics and thermodynamics. 2) We eat food which undergoes chemical reactions producing heat energy which is converted into mechanical energy 3) Use of refrigerator, pressure cookers, washing machines, television, music system, computers, etc. Are all designed on the principles of physics. 4) When we speak, we produce sound properties of which like pitch and intensity are studied in physics 5) Electricity that we use in household is a gift of physics ) Automobiles design is based on physics The list is endless. Vela T answered 6 years ago Very vague question but practically everything we do in our daily lives involves SOME degree of physics. Putting on toast, boiling a kettle heat energy, electricity Cycling a bike mechanical movements Using the brakes Friction Using a door handle Levers and Springs Throwing a ball weights, gravity, trajectory, air resistance 1)We walk, walk fast, run, Jog, Jump into a bus etc. All these or any type of motion is associated with Newtons law of motion. ) When we talk, our vocal cords vibrate producing sound. ) When we eat food, the chemical energy of the food is being converted into mechanical energy which we use to do different types of work

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Tess Of The Durbervilles Essay Thesis Example For Students

Tess Of The Durbervilles Essay Thesis -1-SAC Out come 2 LiteratureIn Tess of the DUrbervilles Hardy does expose the social injustices and double standards which prevail in the late nineteenth century. These injustices and double standards are evident throughout the whole novel, and Tess, the main character, is the one who suffers them. This becomes evident from the first page when Parson Tringham meets Jack Durbeyfield and refers to him as Sir John. With his whimsical comment, made from the safety of a secure social position, the Parson begins the events which start the destruction and downfall of the whole Durbeyfield family. Logically the fact that Tesss family and their gentlefolk relatives have the same descendents should mean that both sides of the family are equal, but this is not true. Hardy makes this obvious in the contrast between Tesss mothers dialect and the sense of her words, That was all a part of the larry! Weve been found to be the greatest gentlefolk in the whole county.p.21The industrial revolution had begun a social revolution, and with ideas of democracy becoming popular, the notion of equality existed. But in the areas of England that housed the landed gentry it was no more than a notion. The gentry and peasantry were still totally separate and even if the gentry espoused the idea of equality, as Tess was accepted into the richer side of the family, the acceptance was hypocritical. As we find out later in the novel, Alec is not even a real DUrberville; this perhaps represents the false and dishonest nature of that class privilege. It also highlights how arbitrary inherited position is. Alec DUrberville, who believed because he had social position that he could do whatever he wanted, treated Tess cruelly. This raises the questions, should the rich treat the poor as they do? And how do the rich get rich? Could it be because they treat the peasants as they do? If they always have someone to look down upon they will always be of a higher class. If they are superior they have a duty to treat the less fortunate with respect and help them. One of the reasons the higher-class people saw themselves as superior was because of their strict religious beliefs. What ever happened to do unto others, and the fundamental equality of all before god? They are strongly religious but can sti ll treat the peasants with disrespect and superiority. I believe that the whole religious scene was hypocritical. Where is the church during Tesss misfortunes? Angel Clare is a man of strong religious beliefs but he cannot find it in himself to forgive her for a sin that was not even her fault. Not only this, it was a sin of which he too was guilty they both had a premarital affair. This leads us to the hypocrisy in the different standards set for men and women. True, this difference was common to the whole society, but Hardy does appear to be a pioneer in highlighting the injustice. At the end of phase the fourth, Angel admits to plunging into eight and fourty hours dissipation with a stranger (page 225). Tesss forgiveness is immediate. She says: Oh, Angel I am almost glad because now you can forgive me! (Page 225)In her simplicity she believes all will be well but that is not the case. Phase the fifth is titled The Woman Pays. Angel blames her for this very simplicity. He is no t willing to live with her and bring shame upon their future family. Angel can be forgiven with a word, but not Tess. As Hardy points out The woman pays. We will write a custom essay on Tess Of The Durbervilles Thesis specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea , .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea .postImageUrl , .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea , .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea:hover , .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea:visited , .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea:active { border:0!important; } .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea:active , .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u2b3b50ce80b25ab68e05c782d81002ea:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Mathew Shepard Case Brief Essay Order now This is not only shown between Tess and Angel or Alex but by most of the men throughout the book, starting with her father. When Jack Durbeyfield gets drunk at The Pure Drop Tess is expected to do his work for him. While doing this she kills Prince, which leads to her misfortunes at Trantridge. Tess not only has to work for her father when he is drunk, she is expected to cover for his stupidity, as is her mother. An example of this is when Jack rides past the May dance, everyone assumes he is drunk and Tess is left to defend his behaviour. Hes tired, that all, she said hastily, and he has got a lift home,'(p.15) When Tess says this no one believes her. As her friends say, Bless thy simplicity, Tess (Page 15)In Tesss society it was more acceptable for a man than a woman in authority to be cruel or unjust. Alec is not seen as a bad man for what he has done. To an extent even Tesss parents blame her for everything that happened at Trantridge. On hearing the whole story Tesss mother say s, And yet thst not got him to marry ee! reiterated her mother. Any woman would have done it but you Apparently Tesss pride was more of a sin than Alecs rape of her. There seems to be no escape for Tess from the social injustice which is her fate. There is no authority that will champion a mistreated peasant like Tess, in both the situation with Alec, and Tess being from a poor family. The only voice of dissent is from Hardy, the novelist. Even with Angel, her husband, she has no avenue for complaint. People assume the woman was in the wrong but on what was Angels reaction actually based? It could have been an immature and egotistical reaction to the fact that someone had Tess before he did, and if so, what about his responsibility for his preloved status? There was really no interest in this at the time, but Hardy does bring it to the readers attention. The last phase is called fulfilment, and Hardy finishes his long tale of misfortune and injustice. In a sense there is fulfilment. Tess is not released from the injustice or hypocrisy that she has suffered, but Hardy has ensured that it has been made apparent. The evil and false Alec is butchered , and Hardy does not encourage sorrow about this in the reader. Tess experiences forgiveness and the peace of total love from her Angel. Her last moments of love are set by Hardy in an ancient place that transcends the preoccupations and petty divisions of her time. Tess has stood with innocence and pride against all the injustice that was sent to her. This strength makes her endure as a symbol of the triumph of innocence over social restrictions, and a deeper meaning seems to imbue the beginning of Hardys last paragraph: Justice was done, and the President of the Immortals.had ended his sport with Tess.(p.397)Bibliography Thomas Hardy, Tess of the Durbervilles, Penguin Classics, 1998

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Ethicals Dilemma Of A Working Mother Social Work Essays

Ethicals Dilemma Of A Working Mother Social Work Essays Ethicals Dilemma Of A Working Mother Social Work Essay Ethicals Dilemma Of A Working Mother Social Work Essay Essay Topic: Emma The Breadwinner Introduction In every domain of life it is proved that adult female is acquiring in manus in manus with adult male. Therefore if adult male works to gain money, adult females can pull off three callings at a clip i.e. gain money, delegate work at place, and at the office every bit good. How attractively a working adult female juggles these three functions and still is non kicking. [ Working Mothers, How Much working -2009 ] One could specify a working female parent as a adult females with a ability to unite a calling with the added duty of raising a kid [ Jayita, Murali-2009, p.64 ] All the educated working female parents work because they tend to necessitate a fiscal freedom while equilibrating a professional calling. [ Working female parents, How much Working- 2009 ] The go uping Numberss of working female parents are seen in the last few decennaries. Both the spouses have to work merely because to keep the fiscal position of the house. Harmonizing to the 2003 US nose count agency states that 50 per centum professionals are the adult females workers. It is about 90 % of the adult females are out of the house for the work delegates. All the adult females are blessed with assorted professional accomplishments, if non professional so with the concern accomplishments. Though after confronting assorted quandaries in work topographic point i personally feel that adult females are rather capable of confronting the assorted challenges which occur in there ways. Harmonizing to the 2000 US nose count states that individual parent is no longer left behind in this race. [ www.working female parents.com ] I have chosen this instance survey because I am a professional adult female where I tend to confront assorted troubles. How difficult it is to pull off both the delegates i.e. delegates at place and delegates at our work topographic point. It is besides to chew over on those facets where adult females are traveling out of ways to pull off these assorted delegates. Besides to look at the different quandary adult females is confronting while pull offing these double calling duties. CONTEXT/ History In olden yearss all the adult females were cognizant of their boundaries and restrictions. They rendered there whole span of their life for the attention of their households, by brooding in the four walls of the house. Subsequently on a sudden push evolved into concern sector and public personal businesss, which made them turn their dorsums towards thrive households. Those pioneering yearss are no more.The tie of Gordian has broken down and the feminine quandary is over. The last two decennaries has proven that the right clip to incorporate into their double calling direction at place and at the work topographic point has arisen. In the present century the societal position of adult females is trapped under different profound differences. First is the entry into the different hitherto masculine arrangements. The 2nd is the enterprise of an increasing figure of adult females who jointly balance the household and employment. [ Women s two role-1956, reprint-2001 ] Right OF CHILD, RIGHTS OF WOMEN/ LEGISLATION Right OF CHILDREN Their assorted rights which are bestowed upon kids due to U N convention. Children are protected by four P harmonizing to the kid protection act. Four P are listed below. 1. Provision 2.PREVENTION 3.PROTECTION 4.PARTICIPATION. In the proviso of rights, kid is supposed to be provided with the basic necessity of nutrient, shelter, and instruction.In the bar of rights kid should be protected from maltreatment given privateness and has the rights of legal representation. In the protection of rights kid is supposed to be protected from sexual maltreatment, entitled to be protected during war times, struggles and during the natural catastrophe doing bad consequence on the kid. Under the last engagement kid right act it says that kid is entitled in determination devising, has voice for his ain sentiment, and has his ain freedom of scruples. Harmonizing to the UN convention for kids s right they say that, Children should non be ignored, but heard for the better development and public assistance of the kid. All the tribunals must understand the heartache and enduring the kid must be undergoing and must hold respects for their wants. Children were heard and given alleviation signifier the tribunals. Advocacy groups were formed in order to supply aid to the kids in determination devising. A really large BRATS CHARTER is formed where a kid can disassociate his parent if the kid is non happy or do nt desire to transport on with their parents. Children has right of quality of life where the kid has right to take his ain parents either. [ UNCRN ACT- 1 WOMENS MATERNITY LEAVE A ; EQUALITY PAY ACT 2010 All the adult females are given and supported with some of their adult females s rights. What so of all time may be the worked out tenure adult females is entitled for the one twelvemonth pregnancy leave signifier her office with full paid leave. This is applied merely to those who are about to travel on the pregnancy leave from April 2007. They besides have increased pregnancy and acceptance wage period from 26 hebdomads to 39 hebdomads. Law has besides benefited adult females by trashing old regulation of work experience of six months to be entitled for the 26 hebdomads pregnancy leave. [ News-2007 ] Harmonizing to the equality act 2010 it states that when a adult female is working with shoulder to shoulder with a adult male, so she is entitled for the same sum of benefits in footings of wage and other benefits. The act claims that gender equality has to be included into the contractual footings, sing adult females non less than a adult male. Woman should non be discriminated on the footing of her muliebrity ; on the contrary she should be looked upon with sense of figure of equality. [ Equal wage A ; the equality act 2010 ] The old 1970 equal wage act has replaced few good alterations. The assorted alterations which include work forces and adult females executing their responsibilities towards their profession should be considered and rated at the same degree, and should besides be provided with equal criterions of wages for the work generated out of them. Every adult females is allowed to look into across her equal portion of wage and the fillip given to her. [ Equal wage act- 2010 ] WHAT IS ETHICS It is difficult to specify moralss, but someway to understand moralss, moralss can be defined as what is right and wrong, moral and immoral. By and large ethical behaviour is accepted in the society where the behaviour is considered with the moral codifications. Harmonizing to the dictionary moralss means The survey of criterions of behavior and moral judgement and moral doctrine [ Youngdictionary.com ] Man has ever worked difficult to understand between correct and incorrect and between moralss and legality. As per lexicon once more moralss can be defined as The survey of the general nature of ethical motives and of the specific moral picks to be made by the persons in his relationship with others [ Insightempire.com, p.1 ] Ethical motives trades with the survey concerned with normally what is morally right and wrong. This survey is besides applied to any theory of moral workss. Very frequently ethics refers to how one should populate his life? Should he merely aim at garnering cognition or at felicity? If we happen to choose felicity, should that felicity be meant merely for ourselves or for the whole of the household? Should we populate in luxury, should we interrupt Torahs? What are our duties when we are populating with other human existences on this female parent planet, and what examples we are puting for other coevals? Ethical motives are surrounded with all the moral inquiries form all the corners of life. The chief focal point of the moralss covers the cardinal crisis of empirical determinations, which includes the practical costs and the degrees by which human behaviour can be justified. [ Ethical motives by Peter Singh ] Few working female parents work merely because they are qualified and do nt desire to happen themselves to be hanged around merely with the domestic work. The chief motivation was to acquire employed was to give a good criterion life to the household from different angles. [ How on the job female parents manage-1970 ] All adult females are reacting towards the force per unit area of inflationary economic system, to accomplish high degree of instruction for their kids and for complacency. But working female parents can pull off both i.e child care and place delegates. [ Pediatrics vol 56 no-1975 ] ATTACHMENT THEORY- BOWLBY Harmonizing to the Bowlbys theory, he ponders over the fact that early childhood is ever in consecutive contact with female parents, or sometimes it is barely really few stairss off from the female parent. Mother ever tries to maintain her kid stopping point to her thorax i.e. under her plumes. But every bit shortly as the kid tends to turn old the intimacy and the bonds tends to go igniter, the kid seems to acquire involved with more secular activities, but when clip comes to rest at the dark they prefer cipher else and they tend to seek for their female parents. This attachment clearly speaks that how female parent and Child s bonding is built-in adhering. Bowlby stresses on the facts that early age is the age where both kid and the female parent are really affiliated to each other and besides really much strongly involved for each other s feelings and togetherness. [ Cyc-net.org ] MAIN PARTICIPANTS In my instance survey Is have involved assorted participants who face assorted quandaries in connexion with the working female parents while she is pull offing her double callings. My first participant whom I would see is the kid. Sufficient groundss has proved that place delegate has a clear impact for adult females ain life and household organisation, but both are seems to be of import for kids s upbringing. [ Journal-Maternal instruction and early kid care-2009 ] As an educated female parent she can and supposed to be giving place achieving activities for her kids, taking her kid to encephalon ramping events and cover their kids in different acquisition ways, but the quandary is that due to busy agenda she is unable to give adequate clip, where the kid is neglected of his rights and face the quandary. [ journal maternal instruction and early kid care-2009 ] It is true that kids of working female parents are rather speedy in all facets of life.It is besides true that kids are more capable and strong towards the ups and downs in their life. Children face quandary when they are ill during the vacations when female parents are at work, their right to protection is overlooked and the kid is under the quandary. [ How on the job female parents manage-1970 ] At early old ages of phases babes are considered to be traveling under emphasis of separation from their female parents when they are about to go forth for their work. The quandary faced by kids to pull off this beat of separation is really nerve-racking. [ Pull offing two careers-1989 ] Children of lone parents face high rate of emotional quandary, because female parent is working for the staff of life A ; butter and is unable to give sufficient and needed clip for her kids. [ How on the job female parents manage-1970 ] It is besides considered that due to working parents specially the female parent deficiency of attention and supervising kids are found in high figure of school dropouts, drug maltreatment and juvenile delinquency. [ Working female parents, how much working-2009 ] Besides one of the of import quandary kids face during their female parents are out for work are the invigilation of the assorted child-minders. If the kid displacements from one minder to other, kid has to acquire accustomed to all the assorted child-minders wonts and subject. Such fortunes confuse the kid, to what precisely he or she has to follow. Harmonizing to the Lawree Tilton-Weaver-normal behaviour controls ushers and protects kids to get the hang over self-discipline and curtails the jobs like disobeying parents, devouring intoxicants. Drug maltreatment and robbery. She states that psychological direction over kids with more personal feelings breaks out into terrible depression and anxiousness. For case if we choose their friends and vesture which turns to be intervention with their determination devisings, which finally falls into damaging there personal feelings. Which means that we are non caring for their personal feelings? Merely when working female parents tends to put down few ordinances which kids do non accept, and therefore the quandary occurs stating that intervention with the feelings of kids and adds as a negative impact on the heads of the kids towards there working female parents. [ Workingmothers.com ] Though assorted research organic structures are working with the protection of the child care and there progress- it is openly accepted that kids s instruction and there personal development can merely develop kid s assurance and peer relationships. However it is really hard for those kids who are under neglected or hapless child care. [ Commissariats of child care for working female parents in Waless. co.uk ] My 2nd participant is the female parent herself. Generally female parents balance their individuality around fussing and employment. Mothers first involvement is ever care giving to kids and household, through there paid employment which upholds the fiscal position of her house. [ I am so much more myself coming back to work-2008 ] Harmonizing to Vincent and Ball the demand to build a morally equal history of oneself, as female parents require of all categories to show their prioritization of their kids need [ I am so much more myself coming back to work-2006, p.72 ] Though full clip working dramas a critical function for upliftment of fiscal position of the house [ pull offing two careers-1999, 2003 ] All the working female parents accepted that limited fiscal freedom will be nerve-racking when remaining with kids at place. While socialising with other kids, kids behavior happens to be more disquieted. Although kids of age 6 and 11 old ages need most attending, but unluckily female parents find it nerve-racking to perpetrate and give sufficient clip for kids specially when their kids are affected with serious disablements. [ Influence on female parents employment when kids have disabilities-2007 ] Every adult female who is a female parent can be called as working female parent. But those who are with professional calling trade with more challenges in equilibrating there calling and household. It is a really hard and pressurized undertaking, where female parent at the terminal finds that she is left with no clip and no societal togetherness in society. Few working female parents are rather and sound who are blessed with good encouraging and supportive male spouse who gives her the strength to equilibrate her double calling. The quandary is observed in large ratio that really less percent co-operative male spouses are matched. If the kids are non co-operative once more the working female parents are into large quandary towards the child care and upbringing of the kid. [ Working female parents.com ] Furthermore working female parents are disquieted when kid attention factors occur. When no place support is provided by in-laws or other relations to shoulder the kids load. Childcare suppliers are the last option where the working female parent seeks aid from. Harmonizing to Lynne Hill, a policy manager for kids in Waless says that there may non be sufficient options for parents to maintain their kids with the child care suppliers. She says that it is a high undertaking for female parents to equilibrate her work and safety of her kid. It matters more with the kids with disablements, where female parents are more specific with the choosing of the child care options. If she fails to acquire the opted option she tends to confront the quandary for her kid. Though occupation centres are supplying with more occupations to adult females, but due to assorted quandaries working female parent are unable to make the orientated professional ends. [ Wales online.co.uk ] The working female parents activity plays a critical function both during the phases of prenatal and postpartum development of the kid. At times working female parents has to put her kid into the orphanhood installation which strongly hampers the kids growing and the hereafter fate. [ S.B.Khatskel- 2006 ] The is dilemma is that though working adult females balances both work and place delegates, but still she is non counted as a bread victor or given equal position by the society. She is shouldering the full load of the house, but is left empty-handed forever. My 3rd participants would be the employer. As the turning economic system tend to necessitate the adult male power to command the work force. Womans with high gait of instruction are come ining in to the market. Though all the working female parents are supported with the statute law they are happening it hard to acquire the occupations. Most of the working female parents are out of occupation because the quandary most employers are confronting. Most of the employers avoid child bearing adult females due to the execution of the pregnancy leaves. About 63 % employers take these pregnancy Torahs as a serious menace to their industries. Many other employers face troubles to engage female parents on work due to assorted fluctuation happening into the support of the working female parents. [ Maternity Torahs aching adult females occupation chances, News-2007 ] My 4th participant would be Single Parent. All the working female parents undergo assorted troubles. But when we judge and observe a individual parent she has dual troubles. She has dual troubles that of emotional and fiscal balance of the place, for being the staff of life victor of the house. Single parents households are ever under indefinite security, because they can non foretell about the hereafter of their employment. More attending is required as you go at higher degree and managerial degree ; finally the quandary is less hours are dedicated towards the kids. The biggest quandary of the individual parent is that every working female parents get vacation but an unsupported working female parent is hanged on with twenty-four hours today troubles throughout her life. [ How on the job female parents manage-1970 ] Single parents find it hard at times to take an low-cost child care option at the proper clip and at the right topographic point, this is more effectual to individual parenting because of deficiency of support from there life spouses, which is stated by- Kate research officer. Particularly when female parents have to work for more hours to acquire more fiscal support for her household. It becomes more hard when female parents get low rewards to supply a good child care for her kid. [ Walesonline.co.uk ] The fiscal conditions of individual parent and their kids depends upon the group of support construction. Assorted constructions which support the individual parents are friends, neighbor, and communities. This shows a crystal clear image that lone parents can really seldom be financially free. Histarically female parents were non accepted to be working. Fostering kids and besides to go the breadwinner for the household is observed to be a drastic load for the individual parents, and disadvantages to their kids. [ Randy Albelda, Susan Himmelweit -2004 ] My 5th participant would be the Husband. The of import factor for the working female parent would be the right and back uping hubby. She may be linked with high place and position or a perfect employer, but if there is no positive signal from her hubby towards her working, so she is certain of taking her matrimonial relationship into hazard. It is quite certain that it is the hubby non the kids who sacrifices most when female parents are working. Though culturally stating he understands that adult females topographic point is inside the house. But still assorted dilemmas occur into the head of hubby saying that he was deprived of something which he really expected out of matrimony. His quandary is matrimony is non solemnized merely for interest of holding sex or reproduction of kids, and their after looking after them instead. Both the spouses should hold sufficient and category clip for each other particularly the working female parent who is unable to give clip for her hubby due to busy agenda clip. [ How on the job female parents manage-1970 ] INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON This international comparing is done merely to back up my instance survey. In Asiatic states particularly in India it is ever observed that whether it is a joint household or a impersonal household working female parent are ever supported by their in Torahs and all the other nonworking members of the household. Support such as child care, female parents wellness attention, sometimes even the place delegates are to the full taken attention of. When we compare Britain with India there is a immense difference that of support to the working female parent. In India working female parents are given all unit of ammunition support to execute her double calling directions. Grandparents take the topographic point of all the nursemaids as a privilege to look after their grandchildren. [ Working female parents ; How much working, and where is the woomanhood-2009 ] Suggestion The modern muliebrity is epitomized by the professional female parents. The working female parents need to be supported by the modern work suppliers and the employers, transforming its expression from male laterality to gender neutrality. The atomic household and the joint household unit both need to understand the demand and the support a working female parent is anticipating out. There should be good quality and low-cost child care, where female parents are at peace at their work topographic point. Decision To sum up it is rather easy to be a adult female, female parent, and an winner. Many have achieved it through the back up of society, but many have fought through out at that place life to turn out it. In today s competitory universe it is the necessity for the female parents to be working, like their spouses to back up all angles of their house. As we are populating in the advanced universe, and still undergoing the male ruling society, should non admit that working female parents are bad female parents. On the contrary should ever back up and see working female parents as good female parents. While functioning as a female parent and besides pull offing her booming professional calling gives a recognition to the working female parents as a mark of completeness of being a adult female. The assorted quandary a working female parent undergoes are deficiency of clip, and a feeling of guilt for acquiring deprived of her parenting responsibilities. Many wagess are showered on her, wagess such as personal position, improved economic system, and up liftment of household criterions.Women work when their partner is unqualified, or earns unequal money for the household. A 2nd income adds as an a beginning of excess income which uplifts the criterions and releases the nerve-racking life of the whole household. Working female parent should ever maintain reminding to her household members that she is non working for her leisure, but merely and merely for the improvement of her household. However it is rather possible for a female parent to contend for her right to acquire her professional right in many different ways. A general individual will accept her difficult work by stating Ohio! She earns excess money, but adult females is neer recognized for her difficult work which she renders for the whole household. To accomplish all the wagess, compromising balance is required at single degree and at work topographic point, which helps the working female parents to fulfill the two callings of her life i.e. a professional calling and the maternity balance.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Definition and Examples of Politeness Strategies

Definition and Examples of Politeness Strategies In sociolinguistics  and  conversation analysis (CA), politeness strategies are  speech acts that express concern for others and minimize threats to self-esteem (face) in particular social contexts. Positive Politeness Strategies Positive politeness strategies are intended to avoid giving offense by highlighting friendliness. These strategies include juxtaposing criticism with compliments, establishing common ground, and using jokes, nicknames, honorifics, tag questions, special discourse markers (please), and in-group jargon and slang. Negative Politeness Strategies Negative political strategies are intended to avoid giving offense by showing deference. These strategies include questioning, hedging, and presenting disagreements as opinions. The Face Saving Theory of Politeness The best known and most widely used approach to the study of politeness is the framework introduced by Penelope Brown and Stephen C. Levinson in Questions and Politeness (1978); reissued with corrections as Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1987). Brown and Levinsons theory of linguistic politeness is sometimes referred to as the face-saving theory of politeness. Examples and Observations Shut up! is rude, even ruder than Keep quiet! In the polite version, Do you think you would mind keeping quiet: this is, after all, a library, and other people are trying to concentrate, everything in italics is extra. It is there to soften the demand, giving an impersonal reason for the request, and avoiding the brutally direct by the taking of trouble. Conventional grammar takes little account of such strategies, even though we are all masters of both making and understanding the signs that point to what is going on beneath the surface.(Margaret Visser, The Way We Are. HarperCollins, 1994)Professor, I was wondering if you could tell us about the Chamber of Secrets.(Hermione in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, 2002)Would you mind stepping aside? I got a purchase to make.(Eric Cartman in Cartmanland.  South Park, 2001)Sir, the gentleman asked with a twang in his voice that was unmistakably Southern, would it bother you terribly  if I joined you?(Harold Coyle, Look Away. S imon Schuster, 1995)   Laurence, said Caroline, I dont think Im going to be much help to you at Ladylees.  Ive had enough holiday-making.  Ill stay for a couple of days but I want to get back to London and do some work, actually. Sorry to change my mind butGo to hell, Laurence said. Kindly go to hell.(Muriel Spark,  The Comforters. Macmillan, 1957)   A Definition of Politeness What exactly is politeness? In one sense, all politeness can be viewed as deviation from maximally efficient communication; as violations (in some sense) of Grice’s (1975) conversational maxims [see cooperative principle]. To perform an act other than in the most clear and efficient manner possible is to implicate some degree of politeness on the part of the speaker. To request another to open a window by saying â€Å"It’s warm in here† is to perform the request politely because one did not use the most efficient means possible for performing this act (i.e., â€Å"Open the window†). . . .Politeness allows people to perform many inter-personally sensitive actions in a nonthreatening or less threatening manner.There are an infinite number of ways in which people can be polite by performing an act in a less than optimal manner, and Brown and Levinson’s typology of five superstrategies is an attempt to capture some of these essential differences.(Thomas Holtgraves, Language as Social Action: Social Psychology and Language Use. Lawrence Erlbaum, 2002) Orienting to Different Kinds of Politeness People who grow up in communities that are more oriented to negative face wants and negative politeness may find that they are perceived as aloof or cold if they move somewhere where positive politeness is emphasized more. They may also mistake some of the conventionalised positive politeness routines as being expressions of genuine friendship or closeness . . .. Conversely, people accustomed to paying attention to positive face wants and using positive politeness strategies may find that they come across as unsophisticated or vulgar if they find themselves in a community that is more oriented to negative face wants.(Miriam Meyerhoff, Introducing Sociolinguistics. Routledge, 2006) Variables in Degrees of Politeness Brown and Levinson list three sociological variables that speakers employ in choosing the degree of politeness to use and in calculating the amount of threat to their own face: (i) the social distance of the speaker and hearer (D);(ii) the relative power of the speaker over the hearer (P);(iii) the absolute ranking of impositions in the particular culture (R). The greater the social distance between the interlocutors (e.g., if they know each other very little), the more politeness is generally expected. The greater the (perceived) relative power of hearer over speaker, the more politeness is recommended. The heavier the imposition made on the hearer (the more of their time required, or the greater the favour requested), the more politeness will generally have to be used.(Alan Partington, The Linguistics of Laughter: A Corpus-Assisted Study of Laughter-Talk. Routledge, 2006) Positive and Negative Politeness Brown and Levinson (1978/1987) distinguish between positive and negative politeness. Both types of politeness involve maintainingor redressing threats topositive and negative face, where positive face is defined as the addressees perennial desire that his wants . . . should be thought of as desirable (p. 101), and negative face as the addressees want to have his freedom of action unhindered and his attention unimpeded (p. 129).(Almut Koester, Investigating Workplace Discourse. Routledge, 2006) Common Ground [C]ommon ground, information perceived to be shared among communicators, is important not only for gauging what information is likely to be already known versus new, but also to carry a message of interpersonal relationships. Brown and Levinson (1987) argued that claiming common ground in communication is a major strategy of positive politeness, which is a series of conversational moves that recognise the partners needs and wants in a way that shows they represent a commonality, such as a commonality of knowledge, attitudes, interests, goals, and in-group membership.(Anthony Lyons et al., Cultural Dynamics of Stereotypes. Stereotype Dynamics: Language-Based Approaches to the Formation, Maintenance, and Transformation of Stereotypes, ed. by Yoshihisa Kashima, Klaus Fiedler, and Peter Freytag. Psychology Press, 2007) The Lighter Side of Politeness Strategies Page Conners: [bursting into Jacks bar] I want my purse, jerk-off!Jack Withrowe: Thats not very friendly. Now, I want you to go back out, and this time, when you kick the door open, say something nice.(Jennifer Love Hewitt and Jason Lee in Heartbreakers, 2001)

Definition and Examples of Politeness Strategies

Definition and Examples of Politeness Strategies In sociolinguistics  and  conversation analysis (CA), politeness strategies are  speech acts that express concern for others and minimize threats to self-esteem (face) in particular social contexts. Positive Politeness Strategies Positive politeness strategies are intended to avoid giving offense by highlighting friendliness. These strategies include juxtaposing criticism with compliments, establishing common ground, and using jokes, nicknames, honorifics, tag questions, special discourse markers (please), and in-group jargon and slang. Negative Politeness Strategies Negative political strategies are intended to avoid giving offense by showing deference. These strategies include questioning, hedging, and presenting disagreements as opinions. The Face Saving Theory of Politeness The best known and most widely used approach to the study of politeness is the framework introduced by Penelope Brown and Stephen C. Levinson in Questions and Politeness (1978); reissued with corrections as Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1987). Brown and Levinsons theory of linguistic politeness is sometimes referred to as the face-saving theory of politeness. Examples and Observations Shut up! is rude, even ruder than Keep quiet! In the polite version, Do you think you would mind keeping quiet: this is, after all, a library, and other people are trying to concentrate, everything in italics is extra. It is there to soften the demand, giving an impersonal reason for the request, and avoiding the brutally direct by the taking of trouble. Conventional grammar takes little account of such strategies, even though we are all masters of both making and understanding the signs that point to what is going on beneath the surface.(Margaret Visser, The Way We Are. HarperCollins, 1994)Professor, I was wondering if you could tell us about the Chamber of Secrets.(Hermione in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, 2002)Would you mind stepping aside? I got a purchase to make.(Eric Cartman in Cartmanland.  South Park, 2001)Sir, the gentleman asked with a twang in his voice that was unmistakably Southern, would it bother you terribly  if I joined you?(Harold Coyle, Look Away. S imon Schuster, 1995)   Laurence, said Caroline, I dont think Im going to be much help to you at Ladylees.  Ive had enough holiday-making.  Ill stay for a couple of days but I want to get back to London and do some work, actually. Sorry to change my mind butGo to hell, Laurence said. Kindly go to hell.(Muriel Spark,  The Comforters. Macmillan, 1957)   A Definition of Politeness What exactly is politeness? In one sense, all politeness can be viewed as deviation from maximally efficient communication; as violations (in some sense) of Grice’s (1975) conversational maxims [see cooperative principle]. To perform an act other than in the most clear and efficient manner possible is to implicate some degree of politeness on the part of the speaker. To request another to open a window by saying â€Å"It’s warm in here† is to perform the request politely because one did not use the most efficient means possible for performing this act (i.e., â€Å"Open the window†). . . .Politeness allows people to perform many inter-personally sensitive actions in a nonthreatening or less threatening manner.There are an infinite number of ways in which people can be polite by performing an act in a less than optimal manner, and Brown and Levinson’s typology of five superstrategies is an attempt to capture some of these essential differences.(Thomas Holtgraves, Language as Social Action: Social Psychology and Language Use. Lawrence Erlbaum, 2002) Orienting to Different Kinds of Politeness People who grow up in communities that are more oriented to negative face wants and negative politeness may find that they are perceived as aloof or cold if they move somewhere where positive politeness is emphasized more. They may also mistake some of the conventionalised positive politeness routines as being expressions of genuine friendship or closeness . . .. Conversely, people accustomed to paying attention to positive face wants and using positive politeness strategies may find that they come across as unsophisticated or vulgar if they find themselves in a community that is more oriented to negative face wants.(Miriam Meyerhoff, Introducing Sociolinguistics. Routledge, 2006) Variables in Degrees of Politeness Brown and Levinson list three sociological variables that speakers employ in choosing the degree of politeness to use and in calculating the amount of threat to their own face: (i) the social distance of the speaker and hearer (D);(ii) the relative power of the speaker over the hearer (P);(iii) the absolute ranking of impositions in the particular culture (R). The greater the social distance between the interlocutors (e.g., if they know each other very little), the more politeness is generally expected. The greater the (perceived) relative power of hearer over speaker, the more politeness is recommended. The heavier the imposition made on the hearer (the more of their time required, or the greater the favour requested), the more politeness will generally have to be used.(Alan Partington, The Linguistics of Laughter: A Corpus-Assisted Study of Laughter-Talk. Routledge, 2006) Positive and Negative Politeness Brown and Levinson (1978/1987) distinguish between positive and negative politeness. Both types of politeness involve maintainingor redressing threats topositive and negative face, where positive face is defined as the addressees perennial desire that his wants . . . should be thought of as desirable (p. 101), and negative face as the addressees want to have his freedom of action unhindered and his attention unimpeded (p. 129).(Almut Koester, Investigating Workplace Discourse. Routledge, 2006) Common Ground [C]ommon ground, information perceived to be shared among communicators, is important not only for gauging what information is likely to be already known versus new, but also to carry a message of interpersonal relationships. Brown and Levinson (1987) argued that claiming common ground in communication is a major strategy of positive politeness, which is a series of conversational moves that recognise the partners needs and wants in a way that shows they represent a commonality, such as a commonality of knowledge, attitudes, interests, goals, and in-group membership.(Anthony Lyons et al., Cultural Dynamics of Stereotypes. Stereotype Dynamics: Language-Based Approaches to the Formation, Maintenance, and Transformation of Stereotypes, ed. by Yoshihisa Kashima, Klaus Fiedler, and Peter Freytag. Psychology Press, 2007) The Lighter Side of Politeness Strategies Page Conners: [bursting into Jacks bar] I want my purse, jerk-off!Jack Withrowe: Thats not very friendly. Now, I want you to go back out, and this time, when you kick the door open, say something nice.(Jennifer Love Hewitt and Jason Lee in Heartbreakers, 2001)